Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes
Types of building materials
Uses - Moldings, window frames
Advantages - Strong, lightweight, can be recycled
Disadvantages - Production is very energy-intensive and polluting.
Earth-wise tips - Avoid, or use recycled aluminum.
Uses - Walls, paths, driveways
Advantages - Versatile, good thermal mass
Disadvantages - Production is energy-intensive and uses non-renewable resources.
Earth-wise tips - Look for recycled bricks.
Uses - Floors, walls, supports
Advantages - High thermal mass, strong, durable, economical, resists termites and earthquakes
Disadvantages - Production involves quarrying and creates greenhouse emissions; poor insulator, needs reinforcing.
Earth-wise tips - Use autoclave aerated concrete (AAC), which is lightweight, energy-efficient and non-toxic, or concrete made with recycled aggregate.
Fibre cement sheeting
Uses - Cladding
Advantages - Low embodied energy, light, inexpensive, good thermal properties, can be rendered
Disadvantages - Not as strong as some other options; associated with cheap housing and asbestos (no longer used).
Earth-wise tips - Try lime wash as a surface treatment: it’s suitable and environmentally benign.
Uses - Windows, doors, skylights; bricks
Advantages - Stable, long-lasting, efficient, recyclable
Disadvantages - Production is energy-intensive, uses non- renewable minerals.
Earth-wise tips - Seek out recycled windows; buy energy-efficient new glass.
Uses - Walls, floors
Advantages - Source material can be found on site, long-lasting, biodegradable, high thermal mass; pest- and fire-resistant
Disadvantages - Making bricks is labour-intensive; requires soil with high clay content; poor insulator.
Earth-wise tips - Bricks can be purchased ready-made.
Uses - Lining walls
Advantages - Potentially recyclable, breathes, largely natural
Disadvantages - Some plasterboards contain toxic chemicals and glass fibres.
Earth-wise tips - Look for recycled plasterboard and non- synthetic boards with natural fixatives.
Uses - Window frames, water pipes, gutters, floor and wall coverings
Advantages - Light, durable, resistant to damp, water and pests
Disadvantages - Made from non-renewable resources; production is energy-intensive and polluting; may off-gas.
Earth-wise tips - Look for renewable alternatives; avoid PVC – opt for PVC-free polypropylene or polybutylene instead.
Uses - Frames, supports
Advantages - Strong, economical, durable, recyclable
Disadvantages - Production is energy-intensive and highly polluting; coatings are often polluting.
Earth-wise tips - Buy recycled steel or opt for renewable timber.
Stone and composite stone
Uses - Walls, floors, supports
Advantages - Abundant, durable, high thermal mass, economical if available on site; no toxic emissions
Disadvantages - Non-renewable; extraction and transportation can be energy-intensive.
Earth-wise tips - Use salvaged stone or products made with waste stone from local sources.
Uses - Walls
Advantages - Cheap, renewable, good insulator
Disadvantages - Is bulkier than other materials; requires specialised construction.
Earth-wise tips - Avoid chemical pest treatments and use eco-friendly render.
Uses - Floors, walls, supports and roof frames
Advantages - Strong, easy to work with, versatile, potentially renewable, biodegradable
Disadvantages - Some timber is non-renewable; often treated with toxic chemicals.
Earth-wise tips - Use recycled wood or timber from sustainable sources, with no chemical treatments.